Panties and Bras

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Nuu's Biological Nomenclature


   

 

 

 

In Nuu, the names of plants, animals and other organisms are devised in accordance with the principles and rules set forth below.  Extinct beings will not be treated.

 

The basic principles are that:

1.)    Every organism should have a unique, unambiguous name.

2.)    Generally, the name should show order, family, genus and species.

3.)    This name should consist of a single word.

4.)    This word should be as concise as possible.

5.)    This word should be pronounceable according to orthographic rules.

6.)    There should be no distinction between common and scientific names.

 

ORTHOGRAPHY

 

In order to give some examples, it will be convenient to review Nuu’s consonants and vowels.  The 38 monographic and digraphic consonants used in biological nomenclature are tabulated below.  Note that CX and CJ are not used in biology.

 

P

TJ

T

C

K

B

DJ

D

GJ

GX

MH

NX

NH

GH

QH

M

NJ

N

G

Q

F

TH

S

SH

KH

V

DH

Z

ZH

CH

LH

RH

YH

WH

 

L

R

Y

W

 

 

The second letter of every digraphic consonant is H, J or X.  These may be regarded as diacritic marks, rather than independent letters.  A digraphic consonant counts as one consonant.  The 48 short vowels are these:

 

Í

I

É

E

Á’

A’

Ú

U

Ó

O

Á

A

Ï

Ì

Ë

È

Ä’

À'

Ü

Ù

Ö

Ò

Ä

À

Í;

I;

É;

E;

Á”

A”

Ú;

U;

Ó;

O;

Á;

A;

Ï;

Ì;

Ë;

È;

Ä”

À”

Ü;

Ù;

Ö;

Ò;

Ä;

À;

 

For each short vowel in the first two rows, there are 10 long vowels, numbered from 0 to 9, for example: E0, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, E7, E8, E9.  For pronunciation of consonants and vowels see Romanization.  Consonants may be denoted by C, short vowels by v, and long vowels by V.

 

GROUPING

 

As regards Principle 4, it has been deemed desirable to divide organisms into groups depending on their apparent linguistic importance.  For primary plants and animals, constituting Group I, dissyllabic names are the norm.  For secondary plants and animals, Group II, trisyllabic names are the norm.  For tertiary plants and animals, Group III, tetrasyllabic names are normal.  And for monera, fungi and protists, Group IV, pentasyllabic names are the norm.  Often, unambiguous names may be reduced by one or two syllables, but occasionally an extra syllable is needed, as will be explained below.

 

Group I includes Divisions Magnoliophyta and Pinophyta, and Classes Aves, Mammalia and Insecta. 

 

Group II includes all other classes of Chordata and Arthropoda, and all classes of Mollusca.

 

Group III includes all other phyla of Animalia and all other divisions of Plantae.

 

Group IV includes all Fungi, Monera and Protista.

 

These groups are summarized in Table 7661 of Nuu Tables.

 

GROUP 1

 

First, plants and animals of Group I will be considered.  A circumscription typically consists of four parts: order, family, genus and species.  There are words for kingdoms, classes, phyla, divisions and interpolated taxa, but they are not ordinarily used in formation of names corresponding to common names or binomial scientific names.  Thus we have, as examples:

Horse: Perissodactyla Equidae Equus caballus

Orange:  Sapindales Rutaceae Citrus sinensis

Potato: Solanales Solanaceae Solanum tuberosum

Silkworm: Lepidoptera Bombycidae Bombyx mori

Perissodactyla, Sapindales, Solanales and Lepidoptera are orders.  The name of an order is of the form CV: PÓ1—Perissodactyla; NA8—Sapindales; NÉ8—Solanales;  LÚ3—Lepidoptera.  These forms are nouns in their own right, and not merely pre-nominal matrices.

Often, there are 38 or fewer families in an order.  So a single consonant is infixed in the name of the order to name the family: PKHÓ1—Equidae; NYA8—Rutaceae; NNÉ8—Solanaceae; LYÚ3—Bombycidae.  Again, these are nouns in their own right.  Sometimes, the number of families in an order exceeds 38.  In that case, several synonymous order-names are used: CÚ3, CÓ3, BÓ3, LÓ3—Coleoptera; CHU1, PU1, ZU1—Passeriformes.  So among passeriform birds, we have, for example: CHZU1—Remizidae; PCU1—Corvidae; ZGU1—Cinclidae.

The number of genera in a family may be great; there are about 800 genera of orchids.  An infix of the form vC is used to derive the name of a genus from the name of a family; 1834 such infixes are possible.  Examples are:  PKHEKHÓ1—Equus; NYINA8—Citrus; NNENÉ8—Solanum; LYEYÚ3—Bombyx. 

Similarly, the number of species in a genus may be great; Acacia has about 800 species.  So the infix for species is C or CC’.  C’ represents any consonant save L, R, Y or W.  The significance of this exclusion will be discussed later.  Thus, there are 1330 possible infixes.  Infixes C are used for linguistically preeminent species.  When infixes C have been exhausted, infixes CC’ may be selected.  Examples are: PKHEKHLÓ1—Equus caballus, horse; NYINRA8—Citrus sinensis, orange; NNENPÉ8—Solanum tuberosum, potato; LYEYKHÚ3—Bombyx mori, silkworm.  In the Dictionary, the entries look like this:

 

HORSE (PERISSODACTYLA EQUIDAE EQUUS CABALLUS)

PKHEKHLÓ1

ORANGE (SAPINDALES RUTACEAE CITRUS SINENSIS)

NYINRA8

POTATO (SOLANALES SOLANACEAE SOLANUM TUBEROSUM)

NNENPÉ8

SILKWORM (LEPIDOPTERA BOMBYCIDAE BOMBYX MORI)

LYEYKHÚ3

 

If an order and a family have the same typical plant or animal, they use the same consonant: NÉ8—Solanales; NNÉ8—Solanaceae; RA8—Rosales, RRA8—Rosaceae.  If the family and genus have the same typical plant or animal, the consonant is repeated, with interposed E, whether or not the order and family have the same consonant:  NNENÉ8—Solanum; RRERA8—Rosa: PKHEKHÓ1—Equus.

 

If a genus is monotypic, no species-infix is used:

 

COCONUT (ARECALES ARECACEAE COCOS)

RRÖCÏ8

ORANGUTAN (PRIMATES HOMINIDAE PONGO)

BMÖGÓ1

GIANT SEQUOIA (PINALES CUPRESSACEAE SEQUOIADENDRON)

PCADÚ8

 

If a genus contains several species that are all known by the same common name, with or without modifiers, no species infix is ordinarily used:

 

CHIMPANZEE (PRIMATES HOMINIDAE PAN)

BMÁ’PÓ1

WHEAT (POALES POACEAE TRITICUM)

SSÏKHÏ8

 

However, if the need arises, species-infixes may be added.  To date (9/19/2008), such refinements have not been made.  Possibilities include:

 

PYGMY CHIMPANZEE (PRIMATES HOMINIDAE PAN PANISCUS)

BMÁ’PPÓ1

DURUM WHEAT (POALES POACEAE TRITICUM DURUM)

SSÏKHDÏ8

 

These are in red because they are mere proposals, not in the Dictionary.

 

Similarly if a family has only one species, the infixes for both genus and species are omitted:

 

HOOPOE (CORACIIFORMES UPUPIDAE)

QKHU1

DUGONG (SIRENIA DUGONGIDAE)

SGÓ1

 

Also, even if a family has several genera or species known by the same common name, with or without modifiers, the generic and specific infixes are usually omitted:

 

PORPOISE (CETARTIODACTYLA PHOCOENIDAE)

RFÓ1

RHINOCEROS (PERISSODACTYLA RHINOCEROTIDAE)

PRÓ1

 

It is often difficult to determine when such contractions are justified, so factors of judgment and error enter into the selection.  But what is invariable is that the Nuu word is a precise translation of the circumscription displayed in parentheses, whether or not the circumscription is debatable.

 

Sometimes an entire order has only one species or contains several species that go by the same common name, with or without modifiers.  In such cases, the infixes for family, genus and species are all omitted.  The circumscription always begins with the name of the order, and all omissions are those of lower ranks, unless otherwise stated:

 

OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIMORPHIA)

DHÓ1

PANGOLIN (PHOLIDOTA)

FÓ1

 

For a few plants and animals, it is necessary to state a subspecific taxon, as race, variety or cultivar.  Another infix vC is added to the name of the species, and a fivefold circumscription is stated.  Fortunately this happens seldom:

 

DOG (CARNIVORA CANIDAE CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS)

KRERWÍFÓ1

RUTABAGA (BRASSICALES BRASSICACEAE BRASSICA NAPUS BRASSICA)

SSESNESA8

FERRET (CARNIVORA MUSTELIDAE MUSTELA PUTORIUS FURO)

KMEMPEFÓ1

 

Interpolated taxa are employed when it is necessary or convenient in isolating a subgroup.  A rank between order and family, whether it is called a suborder, infraorder or superfamily is denoted by infixing L, R, Y or W after the order-consonants.  Here it is important to count consonants correctly, for the second order-consonant may also be L, R, Y or W.  In the Dictionary, the interposed taxon is identified.  If further groupings are needed, the other reserved consonants may be used.  Other expedients may be devised for even further groupings, but this is beyond the scope of a book on grammar:

 

ANTEATER (PILOSA suborder VERMILINGUA)

GJVRÓ1

LEMUR (PRIMATES infraorder LEMURIFORMES)

BCHRÓ1

KINGFISHER (CORACIIFORMES suborder ALCEDINES)

QLRÚ1

 

Likewise, an interpolated taxon between the rank of family and genus is denoted by infixing a vowel, preferably one that diphthongizes readily, after the vowel of the genus-infix.  Even an aggregation of species not necessarily formally bracketed as a subfamily may receive such an infix:

 

LORY (PSITTACIFORMES PSITTACIDAE subfamily LORIINAE)

YYAÍLU1

BADGER (CARNIVORA MUSTELIDAE subfamily MELINAE)

KMÁ’ÍTÓ1

FOX (CARNIVORA CANIDAE VOLPES ETC.)

    KRÜÍVÓ1

 

A taxon between the rank of genus and species is denoted by infixing L, R, Y or W after the consonant or consonants denoting the species.  In biliteral species-infixes, the second consonant may not be L, R, Y or W, so that the last consonant in a biological noun, if it is one of these, always denotes an aggregation:

 

IBEX (CETARTIODACTYLA BOVIDAE CAPRA IBEX ETC.)

RBÁ’PKHRÓ1

KESTREL (FALCONIFORMES FALCONIDAE FALCO TINNUNCULUS ETC.)

FFEFTRU1

 

In all cases where an infixed consonant or vowel denoting an interpolated taxon or aggregation is used, it is to be understood that the that the principal or one of the principal groups bracketed may be retrieved by dropping the infix:

 

FOX (CARNIVORA CANIDAE VOLPES ETC.)

KRÜÍVÓ1

TRUE FOX (CARNIVORA CANIDAE VOLPES)

KRÜVÓ1

 

 

GROUP II

 

Group II includes all chordates except birds and mammals, all arthropods except insects, and all mollusks.  However, only certain classes and orders are given any attention here, the selection depending on perceived linguistic importance.  Among the select classes and orders, there are slight variations in procedure, as outlined below.

 

OSTEICHTHYES

 

For Osteichthyes, bony fishes, a trisyllabic name is the norm.  The noun denoting a typical order of bony fishes begins with two consonants, as counted in the way described above.  Examples are:  SZÄ’3—Esociformes; SHNJÄ’3—Pleuronectiformes;  SMHÄ’3—Salmoniformes.  The noun denoting a family is derived from the order-noun by insertion of an infix vC: SZEZÄ’3—Esocidae; SHNJÖLÄ’3—Soleidae; SMHEMHÄ’3—Salmonidae.  Note that if the order and family have the same typical fish, the consonant is repeated, after E.

The exception to the abovesaid formation occurs in the case of Perciformes, an order with a very large number of families.  The order-noun is VÄ’3,  and the infix for the family is of the form CvC: VLELÄ’3—Percidae; VRARÄ’3—Sparidae; VZESÄ’3—Scombridae; VRÖNÄ’3—Moronidae; VZISÄ’3--Istiophoridae (all perciform families).

A genus is denoted by insertion of another infix vC: VLELELÄ’3—Perca; SMHEMHÖGÄ’3—Oncorhynchus; VZESÜTHÄ’3—Thunnus; SZEZEZÄ’3—Esox.  Again, a family and a genus with the same typical fish have infixes with the same consonant.  A species is denoted by infixing C or CC’, as in Group I.  In the Dictionary, entries look like this:

 

ALBACORE TUNA (PERCIFORMES SCOMBRIDAE THUNNUS ALALONGA)

VZESÜTHLÄ’3

MUSKIE (ESOCIFORMES ESOCIDAE ESOX MASQUINONGY)

VZEZEZMÄ’3

RAINBOW TROUT (SALMONIFORMES SALMONIDAE ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

SMHEMHÖGMÄ’3

STRIPED BASS (PERCIFORMES MORONIDAE MORONE SAXATILIS)

VRÖNENSÄ’3

 

As with nouns in Group I, infixes for species, genera and families may be dropped when they are redundant:

 

SAILFISH (PERCIFORMES ISTIOPHORIDAE ISTIOPHORUS)

VZISESÄ’3

SPRAT (CLUPEIFORMES CLUPEIDAE SPRATTUS)

SKEKATÄ’3

SEAHORSE (SYNGNATHIFORMES SYNGNATHIDAE HIPPOCAMPUS)

SGHEGHÍPÄ’3

SMELT (OSMERIFORMES OSMERIDAE)

SMEMÄ’3

SNAPPER (PERCIFORMES LUTJANIDAE)

VLÜZHÄ’3

EEL (ANGUILLIFORMES)

SGÄ’3

CATFISH (SILURIFORMES)

SLÄ’3

 

 

CHONDRICHTHYES

 

For Chondrichthyes, cartilaginous fishes, a similar procedure is used, except that an indication of superorder may be made.  There are three superorders:  CSÄ’3—Batoidea, rays; CSHÄ’3—Holocephali, chimaeras; CTHÄ’3—Selachimorpha, sharks.  The name of an order is formed by infixing a third consonant: CTHNÄ’3—Squatiniformes; CSBÄ’3—Rajiformes; CSHFÄ’3—Chimaeriformes.  S, SH or TH may be dropped.  An entry in the Dictionary looks like this:

 

MANTA RAY (superorder BATOIDEA RAJIFORMES MYLIOBATIDAE MANTA)

CSBÏMAMÄ’3   

 

Here RAJIFORMES, MYLIOBATIDAE and MANTA are the order, family and genus, with the species omitted.  The entry might have read:

 

MANTA RAY (RAJIFORMES MYLIOBATIDAE MANTA)

CBÏMAMÄ’3       

 

Entries for orders look like this:

 

LAMNIFORMES (ORDER OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES)

CTHGÄ’3, CGÄ’3

 

Superorders have been made denominable as a means of separating sharks, rays and chimaeras, when this is desired.

 

REPTILIA

           

For Reptilia, reptiles, the procedure is exactly as for Osteichthyes, except that there is no order, like Perciformes, with a large number of families.  Typical entries in the Dictionary look like these:

 

COTTONMOUTH (SQUAMATA VIPERIDAE AGKISTRODON PISCIVORUS)

RSÍVANGPÄ’3

DIAMONDBACK (SQUAMATA VIPERIDAE CROTALUS ATROX ETC.)

RSÍVÖCDRÄ’3

IGUANA (SQUAMATA IGUANIDAE IGUANA)

RSÍGJEGJÄ’3

SNAPPING TURTLE (TESTUDINES CHELYDRIDAE)

RKHEMÄ’3

 

 

AMPHIBIA AND AGNATHA

 

Amphibia, amphibians, and Agnatha, jawless fishes, both few in number, are treated similarly:

 

SALAMANDER (CAUDATA SALAMANDRIDAE subfamily SALAMANDRINAE)

FCASEÍSÄ’3   

LAMPREY (PETROMYZONTIFORMES PETROMYZONTIDAE)

GJPEPÄ’3

 

 

ARTHROPODA

 

For Arthropoda, arthropods, excluding insects, which were discussed in Group I, the name of each of four subphyla is of the form CV: FÀ’3—Chelicerata; THÀ’3—Crustacea; SHÀ’3—Hexapoda; SÀ’3—Myriapoda.  The name of a class is derived by infixing a single consonant, but the subphylum-consonant is omissible.  Only two classes are discussed here:

 

ARACHNIDA (CLASS OF ARTHROPODS)

       FKHÀ’3, KHÀ3

MALACOSTRACANS (CLASS OF ARTHROPODS)

THCÀ’3, CÀ’3

 

The optional display of the subphylum is used to provide a convenient translation of the important word CRUSTACEAN:

 

CRUSTACEA (SUBPHYLUM OF ARTHROPODS)

THÀ’3

 

When an order-infix is added, it is mandatory to omit the subphylum-consonant.  For example, Opiliones is always KHLÀ’3, never FKHLÀ’3.  Examples are:

 

VINEGAROON (UROPYGI THELYPHONIDAE MASTIGOPROCTUS GIGANTEUS)

KHYETHÖMGJÄ’3

GALL MITE (ACARI=ACARINA ERIOPHYIDAE)

KHCÖFÀ’3

DADDY LONGLEGS (OPILIONES)

KHLÀ’3

 

As usual, the first word in the circumscription is the name of the order.  Equals-signs denote variants of the names of taxa, and appear only occasionally in the Dictionary.   Examples of malacostracans are:

 

EDIBLE CRAB (DECAPODA CANCRIDAE CANCER PAGURUS)

CRÁ’GEGPÀ’3

LOBSTER (DECAPODA NEPHROPIDAE=HOMARIDAE)

CREFÀ’3

SHRIMP (DECAPODA infraorder CARIDEA)

CRAÍCÀ’3

 

 

MOLLUSCA

 

Classes of phylum Mollusca, mollusks, are of the form CV: BÒ3--Bivalvia; CÒ3--Cephalopoda; GJÒ3--Gastropoda.  An order is denominated by infixing a single consonant: BVÒ3—Veneroida; CDÒ3—Teuthida; GJVÒ3—Sorbeoconcha?.  The status of SORBEOCONCHA is in question.  An infix vC is used for a family, another infix vC for genus, and an infix C or CC’ for species.  The same contractions are used as in the case of other categories of Group II.  Examples are:

 

QUEEN CONCH (SORBEOCONCHA STROMBIDAE STROMBUS GIGAS)

GJVÖMEMGJÒ3

CHAMBERED NAUTILUS (NAUTILIDA NAUTILIDAE NAUTILUS POMPILIUS)

CNENENPÒ3

COLOSSAL SQUID (TEUTHIDA CRANCHIIDAE MESONYCHOTEUTHIS)

CDÁ’GEMÒ3

COCKLE (VENEROIDA CARDIIDAE)

BVARÒ3

CUTTLEFISH (SEPIIDA)

CSÒ3

 

 

GROUPS III AND IV

 

So far, with few exceptions, organisms in Groups III and IV have not been dealt with, but the procedure is analogous to that for the higher groups.  The difference is that a radical noun, of the form CV, in Group III denotes a phylum and one in Group IV a kingdom.  The next lower taxon is denominated by infixing C, and each subsequent taxon down to the rank of genus by an infix vC.  Finally, a species is denoted by infixing C or CC’ as above.  It will be necessary to develop an outline of the higher ranks before particular species may be named, but below is a table displaying the proposed method:

 

 

 

POSSIBLE DERIVATIONS IN GROUPS III AND IV

 

GROUP III

 

BRANDLING, TIGERWORM

 

PHYLUM ANNELIDA

NÏ3

CLASS CLITELLATA

NCÏ3

ORDER HAPLOTAXIDA

NCAPÏ3

FAMILY LUMBRICIDAE

NCAPOMÏ3

GENUS EISENIA

NCAPOMÍZÏ3

SPECIES ANDREI

NCAPOMÍZNÏ3

GROUP 1V

 

BUBONIC PLAGUE BACTERIA

 

KINGDOM EUBACTERIA

RÁ’8

PHYLUM PROTEOBACTERIA

RPÁ’8

CLASS GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA

RPAMÁ’8

ORDER ENTEROBACTERIALES

RPAMENÁ’8

FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE

RPAMENENÁ’8

GENUS YERSINIA

RPAMENENERÁ’8

SPECIES PESTIS

RPAMENENERPÁ’8